Dating furniture square nails
To overcome this limitation, some fungi, such as Armillaria, form rhizomorphs, which resemble and perform functions similar to the roots of plants.As eukaryotes, fungi possess a biosynthetic pathway for producing terpenes that uses mevalonic acid and pyrophosphate as chemical building blocks.Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and also parasites.They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or as molds.Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents.Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests.8000 of them are detrimental to plants and 300 can be pathogenic to humans.Ever since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, and Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology (e.g., characteristics such as spore color or microscopic features) or physiology.
Species may also be distinguished by their biochemical and physiological characteristics, such as their ability to metabolize certain biochemicals, or their reaction to chemical tests.Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans.The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals.Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies.
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Many of the plant and fungal enzymes that make these compounds differ from each other in sequence and other characteristics, which indicates separate origins and convergent evolution of these enzymes in the fungi and plants.